IT’S A MAN’S (CELLULOID) WORLD: ON-SCREEN REPRESENTATIONS OF FEMALE CHARACTERS IN THE TOP 100 FILMS OF 2013
Female characters remained dramatically under-represented as protagonists, major characters, and speaking (major and minor) characters in the top grossing films of 2013. Females accounted for 15% of protagonists, 29% of major characters, and 30% of all speaking characters. Female characters were younger than their male counterparts and were more likely than males to have an identifiable marital status. Further, female characters were less likely than males to have clearly identifiable goals or be portrayed as leaders of any kind.
THE CELLULOID CEILING: BEHIND-THE-SCENES EMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN ON THE TOP 250 FILMS OF 2014
Women comprised 17% of all directors, writers, producers, executive producers, editors, and cinematographers working on the top 250 (domestic) grossing films of 2014. This represents an increase of 1 percentage point from 2013 but is the same percentage of women working in these roles in 1998.
In 2014, women accounted for 7% of directors, up 1 percentage point from 2013 but down 2 percentage points from 9% in 1998. In other roles, women comprised 11% of writers, 23% of producers, 19% of executive producers, 18% of editors, and 5% of cinematographers. (Continued at the source.)
GENDER @ THE MOVIES: ON-LINE FILM CRITICS AND CRITICISM
This study examined over 2,000 reviews penned by 145 writers designated as “top critics” on Rotten Tomatoes over a two-month period in the spring of 2013. Findings indicate that top male critics wrote 82% and top female critics 18% of the film reviews featured on the film review aggregator site. 78% of the top critics writing during the study period were male, 22% were female. (Continued at the source.)
WOMEN @ THE BOX OFFICE
This study asked two basic questions: how do films with at least one woman working in a key behind-the-scenes role fare at the box office when compared to those employing only men in the same roles, and how do films featuring female protagonists fare at the box office when compared to those featuring males.
Examining the top 100 worldwide grossing films of 2007, the study found that when women and men filmmakers have similar budgets for their films, the resulting box office grosses are also similar. In other words, the sex of filmmakers does not determine box office grosses.
In addition, when the size of the budget is held constant, films with female protagonists or prominent females in an ensemble cast earn similar box office grosses (domestic, international, opening weekend) and DVD sales as films with male protagonists. Because films featuring male protagonists have larger budgets, they earn larger box office grosses. However, the differences in box office grosses are not caused by the sex of the protagonist but by the size of the budget. Films with larger budgets generate larger grosses, regardless of the sex of the protagonist. (Continued at the source.)